First Generation

1. Henry LEONARD1 was born about 1618 in Pontypool, Monmouth Co., Wales. He died after 1678 at the age of 60 in Monmouth Co, New Jersey. He and James were the first of the Leonards to come to America. Earliest documented presence in America appear in the Salem Court records, where he was fined for swearing in 1649 and in the Saugus Ironworks account book where he was paid 14 shillings for a hat.

He testified in a court case October 27, 1655, that he was about 37 years old.

His sons Samuel, Nathaniel and Thomas were engaged to work the Rowley ironworks in 1674.

He eventually settled in New Jersey, established ironworks there, and is the progenitor of the Leonards in that state. According to a note on ECL's charts, he went to Monmouth County, NJ, in 1676.

For more background on Henry, please see Bill Barton's articles referenced elsewhere and E. N. Hartley, "Ironworks on the Saugus," Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1957.

George Marston Leonard's charts have him dying in 1695.

Was marriage in Braintree in 1643 or in Lynn in 1650?

The following quote from Bill Barton offers evidence tying the Leonards to the early iron-working families brought over from France to England in the early 1500's to bring a new and improved technology to the refining of iron ore. These families included the Vintons, Pinions, Prays, Russells, and Leonards.

Quoted from Bill Barton: "Just when Henry emigrated is not known. Alonzo Lewis and James R. Newhall state that Henry was in Lynn in 1642. [Alonzo Lewis & James R. Newhall, History of Lynn,Essex County, MA (1965), 1:206] Since John Winthrop, Jr., did not bring his first contingent of ironworkers over from England on the 'An Cleve' of London until the fall of 1643, [William W. Barton, The Establishment of the Iron Industry in America] this undocumented date of 1642 is suspect.

As stated above, Henry may have worked first at the Braintree Iron Works located about 10 miles south of Boston. This was the first ironwork venture by John Winthrop, Jr., and the Company of Undertakers of the Iron Works in New England. It was not initially a success due primarily to lack of ore for the furnace and was temporarily abandoned in 1647. [Hartley, p. 109] No record has been found establishing the presence of a Leonard in Braintree in this time frame other than Henry's 1655 deposition that he was there "nine yeares agoe."

The earliest records of his presence in America is in the Saugus Ironworks account book kept by Richard Leader's clerk, Thaddeus Riddan, where on 26 Mar.(?) 1649 Mr. Brown(?) was instructed to pay Hen Leonard 14s. for a hat. [Riddan Account Books, Essex Institute, and Hartley,p. 129]

In the Salem Quarterly Court Records & Files there appeared the following two citations for the year 1649: [Essex Antiquarian (1902, 6:160-161; Stephen Innes, Creating the Commonwealth: The Economic Culture of Puritan New England (1995), pp. 257-262]

o 26:4:1649: 'Witnesses agt Pray strike Pinion & Tho: Billington & Jno Vinton, Henry Leonard, Jos Jyarks, Nichs Pinion, Tobiah Saunders, Jno Dimond & his man' fined ten shillings at ye Iron works for a common swearer. (Quentin Pray ran the forge and Richard Pray was a collier. Nicholas Pinion was both a forge carpenter and a maker of iron.)[12]

o 11:7:1649: Henry Leonard?s wife and John Vinton's wife fined for scolding, etc., by the worshipful Capt. Robert Bridgis. (John Vinton was in charge of the fineries at Saugus.)[13]

And in the Salem Quarterly Court Records & Files for 1650:[14]

o 25:4:1650: John Smith of Hammersmith confessed judgment in favor of William Osborne, agent of Mr. Richard Leadr. Henry Leonard & John Vinton, both of Hammersmith did the same.

o 27:4:1650: Joseph Armitage v. Nicholas Penyon, Debt. Same v. Henry Leonard. Debt.

The Essex County, MA, courts met at Salem in its first and third quarters and at Ipswich in its second and fourth quarters, based on the calendar then in use. Before 1700, March 25th was most likely the start of a new year. Thus we next find mention of Henry Leonard at the Ipswich Court Records & Files 24:7:1650 in the following citations:[15]

o Larence Turner v. Henry Lenord and wife Mary. Defamation. (Lawrence Turner, born ca. 1621, was a brick worker at the Saugus ironworks until ca. 1653, He was a son of John Turner who was in charge of the fineries at Saugus and later was ?working the forge? at Taunton.)[16]

o Henry Lenord v. Larence Turner and wife. Battery.

o John Herdman and Henry Lenord bound for the former?s appearance at the next court.

In the Lynn Iron Works manuscripts appear the following two entries:[17]

o ?To: Soemuch beeing a debt deue from Hennery Leonnard alloued him uppon arbitration 013=09=11.

o ?To: Sheartes for Henney Leonnard his mann and mendeing of them 001/17/04.

It is not clear whether these entries were made in 1650 or 1651. The Lynn Iron Works manuscripts are reported to be the oldest business record in the U.S.

Henry's total earnings (per annum?) were £16.[18] Henry and his brother James were among the ten highly skilled workers required for the operation of the forge and the rolling & slitting mill at Hammersmith (Fig.3).[19] However, since they drew only small sums for their work there, it appears that they were at that time not in charge of any of the equipment but served as skilled forge hands.[20] At that time the Hammersmith Forge consisted of two finery hearths (where the iron pigs were melted down, decarburized by oxidation and the resulting wrought iron heated to a semi-finished stage) and one chafery hearth (where the malleable iron was reheated for further welding and drawing out into finished bars).[21] At each hearth charcoal was fiercely burned by exposure to a blast of air from leather bellows driven by water pressure.

Although the furnace at Braintree had been temporarily shut down, probably by 1647, the building of the forge was completed by Richard Leader, the first superintendent of the Ironworks. It was located on the Monatiquot River, near the present junction of Adams & Middle Streets (Fig. 4)[22] and consisted of a dam, three water wheels, one finery, one chafery and a massive hammer. Cast iron was brought by boat from Hammersmith to be reduced to wrought iron at Braintree Forge.[23] By 1652 Henry Leonard was working at this Braintree Forge. The Braintree Furnace was located two miles away from the forge on Furnace Brook in what is now Quincy (just west of Braintree).

On 27 Apr. 1652 Goodwife Prey testified in the case of Wilson vs. Faxon that "the child of Joseph (Wilson) coming to Monaticut after the beast that was myred came for help to Goodman Leonards to help the beast, and he sent his man to help him?.." [24] Note that Quentin Pray ran the forge at Braintree.[25]

Then on 21 Oct. 1652 Henry Leonard of Braintree made an agreement with the town of Taunton to come there with his brother James and Ralph Russell to establish an ironworks (Fig. 5).[26] No doubt the reason for this agreement was that Plymouth Colony wanted to compete with the Massachusetts Bay Colony where the proprietors of the ironworks at Lynn and Braintree had a monopoly by grant. In this regard, in a letter signed by Thomas ffolley, John Beck and Gaulter Frost, dated "London this 28th of September 1652," in which an agreement to employ William Osborne (then in London) at "Bantry furnas & fordges" as "clark" it is mentioned that "wee doe vnderstand so much by him, that if hath no imployment by us that then (he being desired long sense by thoes of Plimouth Patent) to be imployed by them in raysing of yron worckes thaer, to ower graet preindice; & without him wee are confident thay will not be attempted." [27]

The Taunton proprietors "set off' land for the three ironworkers but there is no record that either Henry Leonard or Ralph Russell occupied it.[28] Ralph Russell removed to Dartmouth, MA, and started a forge there at Russell's Mills. [29] James Leonard did take up residence in Taunton and did set up a furnace and forge in what is now Raynham.

Our Henry Leonard next shows up back in Lynn, where in the Salem Quarterly Court Records & Files appear the following pertinent citations: [30]

o 24:4:1656 Bond: Sureties: William Curtis and mark L.H. of Henry Lenerd.

o 24:9:1657 ?Marye Lynard, aged about thirty-two or thirty-three years, deposed that Indion [Indian ?] hariust [harvest ?] Last was seaven year?s that Indion Harvist was gathered at the Iron Works before John Smith went away from the Iron Works.? Sworn in court, 25:9:1657 by Wm Hathorne.

o 25:9:1657: Daniell Salmon and John Hathorne testified that said Daniell Salmon, deputy to the marshal of Salem, while serving a writ, attaching a parcel of bar iron, was violently resisted by Olliver Purchis, Henry Leoneard and Richard Blood, who took the iron from him, in the forge at the Ironworks. All three were subsequently discharged. [Mr. Oliver Purchase had replaced Thaddeus Riddan as accounting clerk in 1655. Daniel Salmon operated the company farm.]

In the court held at Salem 26 June 1660:

Mr. Adam Haukes v. Mr. William Paine and company of undertakers of the Iron Works of Lynn and Mr. Oliver Purchass, their agent. Trespass. For damming their waters so high, which was the cause of floating his lands, well and bridge, to his great damage for several years. Verdict for defendant.

This attack was easily defeated by proving that the current management had kept the water level low so as to prevent flooding of Adam Hawkes? nearby farm. Included in the testimony was:

Henorey Lenard, aged about forty years, Nicklis Pinnion and John Vinton deposed that ever since Mr. Porchas came to the works, the water had been kept low by his order, so low that it caused a great deal of difference between the workman and the water drawer; that the waste had been dug wider and deeper since he came, etc. Sworn in court.

Among Oliver Purchis' bill of costs for witness fees appears Henry Leonard's name.

On 30 June 1668 Henry Leonard of Lynn took the oath of freeman. The certificate was signed by Edw. Rawson, the Colony?s secretary.[31]

In 1668 or 1669 Henry Leonard and his family moved to Rowley Village (now Boxford). The local farmers and others had realized that a new industry would be both a source of profit and a stimulus to settlement. These men put up the money, found an 'expert' to build the plant and then the clerk of the ironworks, Thomas Baker, and one of the co-owners, John Gould, leased it to him for £200 per year. The expert was our Henry. However, he was not the actual mover of the enterprise, he being the lessee of the works, and owning only one-sixteenth of them. The works were owned by a company, whose capital stock amounted to about £1,000. The bog-ore used was dug from meadows in Danvers, Ipswich, Boxford, Middleton, Topsfield and Saugus.[32] Henry was permitted to move his family into a house which stood on the lands of the ironworks.

In 1671-1672 Henry's name appeared in court records as 'Manager of the Rowley Village Ironworks' and he was referred to as 'Mr. Leonard.' He ran the business, contracted with the colliers, made and sold iron, all in his own name. Lawsuits proliferated. There were lawsuits over Henry's failure to pay colliers according to agreement:[33]

o Bond, dated 22:3:1672, given by Henry (his mark) Lenard of Bromigum forge (the name of the Rowley Village plant) ("Brummagen" is the local dialect name for Birmingham in England, where other Leonards were working at a forge) in the County of Essex to Anthony Carrell of Essex County, for 13li. to be paid in bar iron at 24 shillings per hundred. Wit: Thomas Lenard (Henry's son) and James Hanscombe.

o Edmond Bridges v. Henry Leonard: non-performance of an agreement to deliver two tons of anchor iron, dated 18 June 1673: signed by Robert Lord for the court; and served by Joseph Leigh, deputy marshal of Ipswich, by attachment of a parcel of bricks and all his interest in the iron works.

o Mr. Robert Paine v. Henry Leonard: debt, in bar iron; dated 18 June 1673; signed by Robert Lord, for the court; and served by Joseph Leigh, deputy for Robert Lord, marshal of Ipswich, by attachment of Leonard?s interest in the iron works, the house he lives in, and in his right in a frame standing by the works.

o Thomas Newell v. Henry Leonard; debt; for not delivering 8li in bar iron in Salem, according to agreement, dated June 18, 1673; signed by Robert Lord, for the court; and served by Joseph Leigh, marshal's deputy.

o Major Genrll. Daniel Denison v. Henry Leonard; debt, in bar iron, due for his part of the rent of the Iron Works and arrears of rent; dated June 17, 1673; signed by Robert Lord, marshal of Ipswich; and served by John Gould, deputy for Robert Lord, marshal of Ipswich, who left the summons with said Leonard?s wife.

o Deacon Wm. Goodhue v. Henry Leonard; debt; dated June 18, 1673; signed by Robert Lord, marshal of Ipswich; and served by Edmond Bridges, deputy for Robert Lord, marshal of Ipswich, by attachment of a parcel of bricks, etc.

o Ens. John Gould v. Henry Leonard; trespass; for harm done by his horses in corn and orchard; dated June 17, 1673; signed by Robert Lord, for the court; and served by John How, marshal?s deputy by attachment of two chests and their contents, who read the attachment to Leonard's wife and left a summons with his son.

o Execution, dated Mar. 5, 1673-4, against Henry Leonard, sr., to satisfy judgment granted Mr. William Browne, sr., at Salem court 24:4:1673; signed by Hilliard Veren, for the court; and served by Henry Skerry, marshal of Salem, by attachment of said Leonard's eighth of the iron works at Topsfeild (i.e., Rowley Village), which was delivered to Nathaniel Mihill, said Browne?s agent, by turf and twig.

o Execution, dated 25:12:1673, against Henry Leonard, to satisfy judgment granted Mr. Robert Paine, sr., at Salem court, 24:4:1673; signed by Hilliard Veren, for the court; and served by Henry Skerry, marshal, by attachment of said Leonard's share in the iron works at Rowley Village, which was delivered to Mr. Robert Paine, jr., for the use of his father, by turf and twig, and by a piece of the houses, for them.

o Execution, dated 19:5:1673, against Henry Leonard, sr., to satisfy judgment grant Mr. William Browne, sr., by Worshipfull Major Daniell Denison, Mr. Thomas Danforth and Hilliard Veren, cleric, 24:4:1673, to be paid in bar iron at 18 shillings per C.; signed by Hilliard Veren, cleric; and served by Henry Skerry, marshal of Salem. William Curties, Mr. Browne?s agent, took a bill of Samuel Lenard (Henry?s son) who offered the iron works as security.

o Daniel Black, employee of the iron works, sued Henry Leonard for a debt of £2 12s 10d and received satisfaction by the court at Ipswich in Sept. 1673.[34]

o Abraham Knoulton deposed that he heard his uncle Knoulton and Mr. Lennard make up their accounts and there were about nine pounds due his uncle. Mr. Lennard received at the same time several pairs of shoes. Sworn in court. Edmond Bridges deposed that Mr. Leonard promised to pay Thomas Knoulton for what shoes he had of him every half year in iron, barley or hides. Sworn in Count.

o Ipswich, Mar. 31, 1674, Deacon Thomas Knowlton v. Henry Lenard, Debt, verdict for plaintiff.

The Ipswich Quarterly Court, meeting in Mar. & Sept. 1673 recorded the following entries having to do with the making, delivery and pricing of coal under Henry Leonard?s management:[35]

o Writ dated 11:1:1672, signed by John Redington, for the court, and served by John How, deputy marshal of Ipswich, by attachment of the coals that lie by the coalhouse at the works at Rowly Village. Henry Leonard?s bill of cost, 3li. 16s. 10d.

o James Car deposed that on Mar. 22, Mr. Leonard desired him to go and see the coal cart measured and "it held 68 bushells one heapt & ye other strook & the cart was full up to the top..." Henry Leonard went on to tell Mr. Car that Mackfation & Ramsdell did not always make the best possible coal nor did they fill the carts full. Sworn in court.

o William Doule, aged about thirty-two years, deposed that he heard Mr. Henry Lenard say about the time Mackfaston and Ramsdell were finishing the work in 'colling the said Lenords wood: that the aforesaid colyers had coled all the wood that he the said Lenard had delivered them in this yer, it being some time in the eaight month 1672.' Sworn in court.

o Agreement, dated May 17, 1672, between Henery (his mark) Lenard and Ambros Mackfation and John Ramsdell 'to Cole all the old wood and the new yt shall be cut and tacken in this yeare for & in consideration of the some of six shilling pr load to be paid unto the said mackfation & Ramsdell by mr Lenard.' Mackfation & Ramsdell further agreed to make good, firm coals and to deliver full carts of coal to the pits. They were to be paid in goods or bar iron.

o William Doule, aged about thirty-two years, and John Everet, aged about twenty-six years, deposed that Mr. Henery Lenard was living at the Iron works in Rowly Villag and had ten cords of wood that lay in such a place that it could not be coaled, but he said he was to cart it to some more convenient place. He disappointed the wheeler by not carting it and had it carried home to burn. Sworn in court.

o Robert Baites deposed that Mr. Leonard said it was a pretty honest load when said Ambross filled the cart, etc. Sworn in court.

o Samuell Lenord and Nathanill Lenord deposed. Sworn in court.

o John Goold deposed that he was present when Mr. Leonard's clerk, James Hanscom, reckoned with Mackfashon, and there was due the latter about 43li. Sworn in court.

o Edmond Bridges, jr., and John Gould deposed that Leonard said they had coaled all his wood except some that stood in water and some that was in rocks whence it could not be wheeled. Sworn in court.

o John Everard deposed that Leonard said to bring in better loads with fewer brands. Sworn in court.

o Tho. Looke and Tho. Towers testified that they received of Samuell Leonord and James Hanscomb by Henry Leanord's order, forty cord of wood but by Daniell Black for Mr. Leonard?s use, which wood they had made into coal, and delivered to said Leanord. Sworn in court.

o Writ: Ambrose Mackfastion v. Henry Leonard; debt; dated Sept. 22, 1673, signed by Robert Lord, for the court; and served by Robert Lord, marshal of Ipswich.

o John Bregges and John How deposed that they heard Mr. Lenord say that he and Makfasan had settled accounts, etc. Sworn in court.

The Salem court, meeting in alternate quarters, continued the business tribulations of Henry Leonard and sons Samuel & Nathaniel: [George F. Dow, ed.,"Records & Files of the Quarterly Courts of Essex County, Massachusetts 1672-1674, 5:196-7]

o Writ, dated 16:4:1673, signed by Hilliard Veren, for the court, and served by Nathaniell Ball, constable of Concord. Account of damage sustained in not coaling the wood the past summer for Mr. Henrie Leonard, according to covenant: for 20 Load of Brands sent in amongst Coles, 6li.; cutting of wood that is not coled, 3li. 10s.; wood at ye stump at 4d. per cord, 11s. 1d.; brands left in the woods which would have made a load of Coles, 2li. 8s.; for a month's rent that I was forced to lie still for want of the coles, 16li.; ??.

o Samuell and Nathaniell Leonard deposed that Mackfation and Ramsdell left of the old and new wood about thirty or forty cords, etc. Sworn in court.

o Henry Lenard's bill of cost, 4li. 6d.

o Hen. Leonard, sr., acknowledged judgment to Mr. Robt. Paine in bar iron.

o Hen. Leonard, sr., acknowledged judgment to Mr. William Browne, sr., in bar iron and money.

o Hen. Leonard acknowledged judgment to Jno. Goold in bar iron.

o Hen. Leonard acknowledged judgment to the Worshipful Major Daniell Denison, in bar iron.

By this time Henry had disappeared owing the better part of a year's rent and leaving the works in great danger of loss by fire. On 31 Mar. 1674 the proprietors met and voted to recover possession of the premises by making an entry on them. The entry was made on 6 April with Henry?s wife delivering up his lease. On the same day the proprietors arranged for three of the partners, John Gould, Thomas Andrews and Thomas Baker, or any two of them, to run the operation of the Company and with Henry's sons Samuel, Nathaniel and Thomas doing the actual work under the following agreement: [Records & Files of the Quarterly Courts of Essex County,Massachusetts, 1675-1678," (1917), 6:1-2]

The Leonards were to repair the chimneys, backs, &c., to stop the leak in the dam and then to deliver the house, works and all utensils and appurtenances, with the wood and coals at the works or in the woods, to the owners or some one or two of them for the use of the rest; the owners were to speedily provide a stock of coal and mine, and bring it to the works, which the said Leonards are to make into good merchantable bar iron with due care and diligence, with as little loss of coal or mine as may be, for which the Leonards were to be allowed 5li. 10s. per ton to be paid in corn or iron at 24s. p C.; they were to have the use of two fires for the present, and what iron they made in excess of one ton per week for a month together, they should be allowed 6li. per ton; the third fire is reserved to be disposed of by the owners as they shall see cause; the Leonards were to keep a true account of every week's product of iron and at least once a week, or oftener if desired, deliver the iron to the persons appointed, or if in anchors, the number of them; they were to take care to prevent danger or damage by fire or water, the necessary charges to be borne by the owners, and for other accidents or breaches that may happen without their fault or neglect, said owners were to repair speedily, or they may do it themselves and be allowed for it upon account, that the works may not stand still any longer than necessary; what mine they should dig or wood cut, when materials are wanting at the works, they should be allowed for in iron, at the rates given to other men for the like work, that they may never be out of employment; they were to observe the order and direction of any of the owners, especially in time of danger or floods, for taking and keeping down the flushboards; this agreement was for six months, and the Leonards were to have the use of two-thirds of the house, the other third to be at the disposal of the owners.

But the three brothers were already in trouble: ("Records and Files of the Quartterly Courts of Essex County, Massachusetts, 1672-74," 5:31 & 351-54; see also Stephen Innes,Creating the Commonwealth: The Economic Culture of Puritan New England (1995), pp. 266-7)

o 1 May 1672: Nathaniel Leonard & Thomas Leonard of Rowley Village, Joseph, Daniell and Benjamin Bixbee, sons of Sergeant Bixbee, and Robert & Thomas Andrews were presented for breach of the peace and some for swering , upon a common fame. Nathaniel & Thomas Lenard and Thomas Andrews upon their presentment were fined.

o Complaint being made against Nathll., Samll., and Tho. Leonard by Hanna Downing for several misdemeanors and lascivious carriages proved against them, but several of the charges having been proved several years since, court sentenced them to be whipped or pay a fine. They were also bound to good behavior.

o Warrant, dated June 16, 1674. Hannah (her mark) Downing's complaint: that the Lenords had on many occasions annoyed her when she was in bed, kicked her and struck her several times until she thought they would kill her. She told their father and mother and they would not believe it, and complainant was 'afraid that thay would kille mee if the athoriaty dos not take some corse with them.' Said Hanna gave bond to Samuel Symonds, Dep. Govr., to prosecute. Samuel and Thomas Leonard were also bound, with Thomas Baker as surety.

o Jno. Hounkin deposed that he living at the house of Henery Linnard the last winter, never saw any miscarriage by Samuell nor Thomas Linnard toward Hannah Downinge, but that she went abroad at unseasonable times in the night and did not come home until it was almost day. Also at sundry times she used to sit up almost all night with fellows who came to the house. He told of her unbecoming conduct with Benjamin Bigsbee and of her lying upon the boy's beds so that they had to get her up to go to bed..

o Sarah Bates deposed that she saw the Leonards abuse said Hannah and pull off her head-cloth, etc. Sworn, June 23, 1674, before Samuel Symonds, Dep. Govr.

o John Gould deposed that he saw Samuel and Nathaniel Lenord come naked upon the dam, and when Goodwife Blake came over the dam, said Samuel spoke and acted indecently, etc. Sworn in court.

o Macam Douneing deposed that he came to Leonard's to see his daughter when her master and dame were not at home. At night Samuel lodged in the bed which his father occupied, and deponent sat up to smoke. He later heard Samuel in the girl's room and went and told him 'I did not like such doing: and so I lodged in yt bed my salfe and Samuell lodged in ye Chamber.' Sworn, June 23, 1674, before Samuel Symonds, Dep. Govr.

o Elizabeth Symons '. testified that Samuell Lenord came to her house and asked her for some beer and she went into the cellar to draw some beer for him. He followed her and tried to kiss her, and she said 'there is maides a noufe for yu to kiss and not to Come to kise maried woeman,' and then he struck her a blow on the small of her back, 'and when I came up I sayed surely Samuell Leonard is fuddled.' Sworn in court.

o Grace Andras, aged about sixty years, deposed that Elesibeth Boungkir being at her house in bed with deponent's daughter Sary, Thomas Linnard came there and annoyed them all night, so that they could not sleep. Sworn in court.

o Hanah Pabody, aged about thirty years, deposed that Samuell Lennard and two others of the family came to her house as they went by to dig mine and spent much of the day there. Samuell took her child out of her arms by force and laid it in the cradle, etc. Then she said to her little boys, "ware is your father" and said Samuell let her alone. Sworn in court.

o Faith Black, aged twenty-nine years, deposed that Thomas Lenord came to her house, into the room where she was, shut the door, drew out the latch string, and behaved very uncivilly until her children came to the door and interfered. Sworn in court.

o Faith Blacke deposed that Nathaniel Leonard said he went to Benj. Murries and the old devil was at home, and when deponent spoke to him for talking so vilely, he said he would not care if he were in hell a fortnight, and he did not care if the devil plucked the soul out of him, and a pox take him, he did not care. Sworn in court.

o Mary Leonard, aged about forty-nine years, deposed that they were very lying girls, etc.

Mary Leonard, Henry?s wife, was further cited in the Salem court records:[40]

o Mary Leonard, aged about forty-nine years, deposed that this spring 'a little before Election I went downe to Lynn & had with mee my son Thomas & Hannah Downing & was late & benighted and would haue turned Inn by ye way vnto the house of one Welman: & this Hannah would not be perswaded to stay, but would goe on thorow the woods in ye night whateuer I could say of the trouble of ye way and tearing clothes but would goe with my Sonn Thomas which if hee had offred her such abuse as she speaks off was a very bold attempt...'

o Joseph Bexby, aged fifty-four years, deposed that he was in Lenord's house in the early morning when Mrs. Lenord was dressing and there were several men in the room. Also that he had seen her sitting by the flume or pond-side when her sons and other men were swimming and washing themselves and some of the men who were more modest than the rest were forced to creep up into the bushes and others put on their shirts in the water, letting them fall down by degrees as they came out. The Lennord's had used very bad words, as Diuell & Damn yee & many words which I haue been very Freequent wth them.' Sworn in court.

o Mary Leonard, the mother, for several uncivil carriages, was admonished. Bill of cost brought in by Ensign Goold, Ed. Bridges and Marshal Lord was allowed.

o Daniell Bexbey deposed that he had several times heard Goody Lenard use bad language and sing indecent songs, etc. Sworn, July 2, 1674, before Daniel Denison.

o In July 1675 William Smith deposed that he being at the works soon after the owners had made a re-entry of the works, Mrs. Lenord made a sad complaint how the owners had abused them, and said she did not question but that God would right their case, for they had done no wrong. She said that it was never known that any workmen were turned out of the works but some sad thing did befall the works and she did not question that the works would be ruined either by fire or water. Sworn in court. ("Records & Files of the Quarterly Courts of Essex County, Massachusetts, 1675-78," (1917), 6:34)

By the summer of 1674 the Leonard sons had so managed to incur the wrath of the dominant group of shareholders that the latter announced that they would suspend operations altogether until more reliable workmen could be found. (Hartley, p. 296)

Bill Barton: "We next find our Henry Leonard in Monmouth County, NJ, where in 1674 Henry Leonard joined James Grover at Tinton Falls on a branch of the Navesink River, about 2 1/2 miles south of Shrewsbury. Grover, a farmer and wheelwright from Gravesend, Long Island, and one of the original settlers of Monmouth Countyunder the 1665 Monmouth Patent, had operated a corn mill there. He discovered bog iron on his property. Probably the Leonards built the resulting iron works. They certainly operated it. (Charles S. Boyer, pres. Camden County Historical Society, Early Forges in New Jersey (1931/19630, 196; Dean Freiday, "Tinton Manor: the Iron Works," Proceedings of the NJ Historical Society, 1952) 70:252.) In order to assist in the financing this project, Grover mortgaged the property to Cornelius Steenwyck of New York. On 29 Dec 1675, when Grover ran out of capital, he sold a one-half interest in the works to Col. Lewis Morris of Morrisiana, NY, and Barbados Island, West Indies. Morris later took over Steenwyck's mortgage and thus retained a three-quarters interest in the works. While it is unknown who owned the other quarter interest, it hasbeen suggested that these associates were Henry, Samuel, Nathaniel, and Thomas Leonard, James Grover, Richard Hartshorne, and Richard Gardiner. ("Tinton Falls Iron Works Collection, #7" Monmouth County Historical Association Library & Archives, Freehold, NY--gift of Mr. Bertram H. Borden, Rumson, NJ.)

"Before the 1675 purchase of the iron works, Col. Morris secured certain privileges and subsidies from New Jersey Governor Phillip Carteret to foster the development of the Works. These privileges and subsidies, which were granted by the General Assembly in 1677, included a seven-year tax exemption, five rent-free years, certain military exemptions for workers in times of war, workmen to be free from arrest for debt but not from suit, and extensive land purchases and grants to supply charcoal for iron smelting. In addition, Tinton Falls Manor, which Col. Morris constructed near the Works, was the only iron works in New Jersey to be a legally recognized manor, complete with its own petty civil court, but not subservient land holdings. (John E. Stillwell, Historical & Genealogical Miscellany, Data relating to the Settlement & Settlers of New York and New Jersey, (1916), 4:14."

At its peak, Tinton Manor and the iron works contained nearly 6,000 acres. The facilities on the propertyincluded the forge, blast furnace, the manor house, separate dwellings for black and white workmen, and gristmills. It is recorded that in 1680 seventy Negroes and many white servants were employed by Mr. Morris. "In its seven years of active construction and operation, £8680 was invested in Tinton Iron Works from 1675 to 1683." (Freiday, p. 256) Henry Leonard seems not to have been very active at Tinton, but his son, Samuel, received a salary of £170 at a time when the average workman received a salary of £20 per year (Freiday, pp. 256-258).

There is also a link between Monmouth County, NJ, where Henry and his sons eventually moved, and Monmouthshire in Wales, from whence Henry may have come. Henry went to NJ to help Col. Lewis Morris develop his iron refinery at Tinton Falls, on the Navesink River near Shrewsbury. Col. Lewis Morris was a son of William Morris of Monmouthshire, Wales. When his father died, Lewis inherited his father's estate of Tintern, Monmouthshire. Also note: the organizational concept of a plantation and a manor were prevalent in New York, probably of Dutch origins.

Worth noting: The Leonard boys seemed to be hellraisers in their youth, but became landowning gentry once settled in New Jersey, where they were close to the royal governor and even received appointments from the Crown. The difference is mindboggling.

Sally Toomey: "Of Henry and Mary Leonard's known grandchildren by their five sons (to the best of my knowledge there were 29), 21 were male. The difficulty in sorting out the male descendants of Samuel, Nathaniel, Thomas, Henry, and John Leonard is their tradition of naming their sons and grandsons Samuel, Nathaniel, Thomas, Henry, and John. It is very difficult to sort out who is who." Amen!

Henry LEONARD and Mary RUSSELL? were married in 1643 in Braintree, MA. Mary RUSSELL? was born about 1620 in Pontypool, Monmouth Co., Wales. She died after 1675 at the age of 55 in Monmouth Co., NJ. Sister of Ralph Russell? Wilbur genealogy says Henry was the brother-in-law of Ralph Russell. She was 40 in 1660, according to GML notes, which said she testified in 1660 and said then she was 40 years old.

Henry LEONARD and Mary RUSSELL? had the following children:



Capt. Samuel LEONARD.



Nathaniel LEONARD.



Henry LEONARD2 was born on 14 July 1656 in Lynn, Essex Co., MA. He died in 1657 at the age of 1 in Lynn, Essex Co., MA. Source: Vital Records of Lynn, Massachusetts (1905), 1:234 & 2:524; ? Genealogical Items Relative to Lynn, Massachusetts? (NEH & GR, 1851), 5:254.



Henry LEONARD Jr..









Mary LEONARD was born on 13 January 1666 in Lynn, Essex Co., MA. She died in August 1667 at the age of 1.



Capt. John LEONARD.